Transmission Electron Microscopy University of Limerick


Transmission Electron Microscopy at the University of Limerick (TEMUL) has progressed to internationally leading standard with the formation of a new Microscopy and Imaging Group led by Prof. U. Bangert (formerly based at the University of Manchester, having worked in the Graphene Group since its inception), and through the arrival of a world-class analytical Transmission Electron Microscope (a double corrected, monochromated Titan Themis with advanced analytical capabilities), all originated and enabled by the UL Bernal project and integrated into the Bernal Institute. New directions in materials research initiated by TEMUL include applications of advanced TEM techniques to nano-materials, especially novel 2D materials. TEMUL’s aim furthermore is to create leaps and bounces in the development and promotion of novel electron microscopy and analysis methods such as electron diffraction tomography. TEMUL is strongly involved with industry and international academia as well as with world-renowned Research Centres, the collaboration with which will achieve internationally leading materials research, impacting on the development of products from next generation nano-electronics to pharmaceuticals to medical devices.

Our Work

2D Materials

2D Materials, sometimes referred to as single layer materials, are crystalline materials consisting of a single (or near single) layer of atoms.

Carbon Materials

The existence of various Carbon allotropes, e.g., diamond, graphite, graphene, nanotube, and buckyball makes this material one of the most characterised materials.

Nano Materials - Temul


A materials science based approach to nanotechnology, leveraging advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research.


Semiconductors are the basis of almost all current electronic technology and exist in every aspect of our lives.

TEM and STEM Imaging - Temul

TEM and STEM imaging

Imaging is carried out in diffraction contrast and phase contrast mode, as well as in scanning TEM (STEM), especially in high annular dark field (HAADF) STEM mode.

Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy - Temul

Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy is an absorption spectroscopy technique, where the energy, absorbed from the incoming electron beam when passing through the sample, is measured with high energy and spatial resolution.



Plasmons are collective excitations in materials exhibiting metallic and semiconducting properties, and, depending on the material, occur over an energy range from tens of eV down to the meV regime.

EDS Mapping - Temul

EDS Mapping

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample.

Diffraction Tomography - Temul

Diffraction Tomography

An inverse scattering technique used to find the shape of a scattering object by illuminating it with probing waves and recording the reflections.


Nano-crystallography aims at the investigation of crystals in the overall size range from few hundred nano-meters on downwards .

High Resolution Imaging

In high resolution imaging the atomic lattice of a material can be resolved.

Imaging Tomography - Temul

Imaging Tomography

A tomographic series is and image series of the same feature taken at varying angles. The images can then be used to recreate a 3D model of the object being imaged.

Modelling - Temul


Theoretical modelling and image simulations are essential for evaluation and interpretation of experimental observations.

In-situ TEM/STEM

TEM imaging at 200kV of AlOOH nanoparticles dissolving in a liquid cell.